Tadalafil

I-CMOAPI inezinhlobonhlobo zemikhiqizo eluhlaza yeTadalafil, futhi inohlelo oluphelele lokulawulwa kwekhwalithi .Kwadlula isitifiketi se-GMP kanye ne-DMF.

Ukubonisa yonke 3 imiphumela

Yini iTadalafil

I-Tadalafil ngumuthi kadokotela osetshenziswa ekwelapheni ukungasebenzi kahle kwe-erectile (ED) kanye nezimpawu ze-prostate ekhulisiwe emadodeni. Kuboniswa futhi ukwelapha umfutho wegazi ophakeme wamaphaphu (PAH).
I-Tadalafil (Inombolo ye-CAS: 171596-29-5) itholakala ngesimo sethebhulethi yomlomo noma i-tadalafil powder futhi ithengiswa kakhulu ngaphansi kwegama lomkhiqizo i-Cialis (ye-erectile dysfunction noma i-benign prostate enlargement) noma i-Adcirca (ye-pulmonary arterial hypertension). I-Tadalafil iyatholakala nangefomu yayo ejwayelekile okungenzeka ingabi nawo wonke amandla njengokwakheka kwasekuqaleni


Isebenza kanjani i-tadalafil?

I-Tadalafil ingenye ye-phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors. Lapho la maqembu ezidakamizwa evimbela i-PDE5 nawo enza ngcono ukusebenza kwe-erectile.
Ngesikhathi sokuvuswa kocansi, ukwakheka kwenzeka lapho kunokugeleza kwegazi okwanele emithanjeni ye-penile okuholela emithanjeni ekhululekile nasemisipha ebushelelezi ye-corpus cavernosum. Le mpendulo ilungiswa ngokukhiqizwa kwe-nitric oxide (NO) kumaseli endothelial nakuma-terminals ezinzwa. Ukukhishwa kwe-NO kukhulisa ukuhlanganiswa kwe-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (eyaziwa kakhulu njenge-cyclic GMP noma i-cGMP) kumaseli wemisipha abushelelezi. I-cyclic GMP isiza ukukhulula imisipha ebushelelezi futhi inyuse ukugeleza kwegazi liye ku-corpus cavernosum.
I-Tadalafil inqanda uhlobo lwe-phosphodiesterase 5 (PDE5) ngokwandisa inani le-cGMP. Kuyaphawuleka ukuthi umuntu kufanele abhekane nokuvuselelwa kocansi ukuqala ukukhishwa kwemvelo kwe-nitric oxide. Lokhu kungenxa yokuthi imiphumela yeTadalafil ngeke yenzeke ngaphandle kokuvuselelwa ngokocansi.
I-Tadalafil inganciphisa izimpawu zezindlala ze-Prostate ezikhulisiwe kufaka phakathi ukuchama okuphuthumayo / okuvamile, ubunzima bokuchama, nokungavumelani nomchamo. Lokhu kukufeza ngokuyekethisa imisipha esendleleni nasesinyeni.
Kwi-pulmonary hypertension, i-tadalafil isiza ukukhulula imithambo yegazi esifubeni. Lokhu nakho kusiza ukukhuphula ukunikezwa kwegazi emaphashini futhi kunciphise nomthwalo wenhliziyo.


Abaphakathi kweTadalafil

Ngenqubo yokukhiqiza i-tadalafil (i-CAS 151596-29-5), abanye abalamuli bayakhiwa. Ezinye izinkampani zizosebenzisa izixhumanisi ze-tadalafil ukukhiqiza i-tadalafil.

I-Cas 171596-29-5

I-Tadalafil (i-CAS 171596-29-5) ngumuthi kadokotela onamandla futhi osebenzayo wokwelapha ukungasebenzi kahle kwe-erectile nokwandiswa kwe-prostatic kwamadoda kanye nemithambo yegazi yomfutho wegazi ophezulu.

I-Cas 171489-59-1

ICas 171489-59-1 ebizwa nangokuthi iChloropretadalafil iphakathi nendawo ekukhiqizeni iTadalafil esetshenziswa ekwelapheni ukungasebenzi kahle kwe-erectile. I-CAS 171489-59-1 inefomula yamangqamuzana C22H19ClN2O5 enesisindo samangqamuzana esingu-426.85 g / mol. Itholakala ngendlela yokuqina okumhlophe.

I-Cas 171752-68-4

I-CAS 171752-68-4 ifomula yayo yamangqamuzana yi-C20H18N2O4.HCl nesisindo samangqamuzana se-386.83 g / mol nayo iphakathi nendawo ne-tadalafil.
Kunabahlinzeki abaningi be-tadalafil intermediates abanikela nge-tadalafil intermediates ukuthengiswa ngamanani wokuncintisana. Kodwa-ke, uma ucabanga ukuthi i-tadalafil ithenge ezinkampanini ezethembekile ukuqinisekisa ukuthi ikhwalithi ayifakwanga.
I-CMOAPI ingomunye wabahlinzeki be-tadalafil abaphakathi abaqinisekisa ikhwalithi enhle namanani entengo ancintisanayo emikhiqizo yabo.


Ubani nokuthi ungayisebenzisa kanjani i-tadalafil

I-Tadalafil powder ingaphatha okulandelayo emadodeni?

Ukungasebenzi kwe-Erectile

Ukungasebenzi kahle kwe-Erectile (i-ED) okubizwa nangokuthi ukungabi namandla kuyisimo emadodeni lapho bengakwazi ukuthola noma ukugcina ukwakhiwa isikhathi esanele sokuzibandakanya kwezocansi. Imvamisa kuholela entshisekelweni yezocansi futhi kungahle kuholele nakwezinye izinkinga njengokujula ngaphambi kwesikhathi noma ukubambezeleka futhi kwesinye isikhathi ukungakwazi ukufinyelela kwi-orgasm.
I-ED ingabangelwa izizathu eziningi zombili izimo zomzimba nezingokomzwelo ezifana nezifo ezithile ezinjengesifo sikashukela, isifo senhliziyo, nomfutho wegazi ophezulu, ubudala, ingcindezi, noma nezinkinga zobudlelwano.
I-Tadalafil isiza ekwelapheni i-ED ngokwandisa ukugeleza kwegazi ukuya endondeni. Lokhu nakho kusiza ukufeza nokugcina ukwakhiwa. Kodwa-ke, i-tadalafil isiza kuphela ekwakheni lapho umuntu esevele evuselelwe ngokocansi.

I-Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)

Eyaziwa nangokuthi ukwandiswa kwe-prostate gland, i-BPH yisimo esivame ukutholakala emadodeni lapho esemdala. Kodwa-ke, ezinye izinto eziningi zingaholela ekukhuliseni i-prostate kufaka phakathi isifo sikashukela kanye nokuphazamiseka kwenhliziyo, indlela yokuphila, ikakhulukazi ukukhuluphala kanye nomlando womndeni we-BPH. Lapho i-prostate ikhula kungaholela ezimweni zokuchama.
Izimpawu ezihambisana nendlala ye-Prostate ekhulisiwe yilezi, ukunxanela okuphuthumayo nokuvame kakhulu ukuchama, ukuthola ubunzima ukuqala ukuchama, umchamo obuthakathaka womchamo, noma ukungakwazi ukukhipha isinye ngokugcwele. Ezinye izimpawu ze-BPH zingafaka ukutheleleka kwe-urinary tract (UTI), ukungakwazi ukuchama, noma igazi emchameni.
I-Tadalafil powder noma ithebhulethi isiza ukukhulula imisipha ku-prostate nasesinyeni. Lokhu kusiza ukukhulula izimpawu ze-BPH.

I-pulmonary arteries hypertension (PAH)

I-PAH yisimo lapho kunomfutho wegazi ophezulu emithanjeni ehambisa igazi emaphashini. Ihlukile kunengcindezi ejwayelekile yegazi. Kwenzeka lapho imithambo yegazi esuka enhliziyweni iye emaphashini iba mincane noma ivinjiwe.
Izimpawu eziphawuleka kakhulu zibandakanya ubuhlungu besifuba, ukukhathala, noma ukuvuvukala ngisho nasemilenzeni nasemaqakaleni.
I-Tadalafil ingasiza ekunciphiseni izimpawu ze-PAH ngokuphumuza imithambo yegazi emaphashini akhulisa ngokulandelana ukugeleza kwegazi.

Ungayisebenzisa kanjani i-tadalafil?

Umthamo we-tadalafil uncike kubudala bakho, ukusetshenziswa okuhlosiwe, kanye nanoma yiziphi ezinye izindaba ezingokwezokwelapha.
Ukusetshenziswa kweTadalafil akunconyelwe izingane ezineminyaka engaphansi kwengu-18 ngenkathi nabaneminyaka engaphezu kwengama-65 kufanele baqaphele kakhulu ngoba imizimba yabo ithatha isikhathi eside ukuncela le mithi.
Kuneziqondiso ezicacile zokuthi ungayisebenzisa kanjani i-tadalafil powder kepha ifomu elijwayeleke kakhulu ithebhulethi ye-tadalafil ngaphansi kwamagama emikhiqizo ehlukile.
Kunconywa ukuthatha i-tadalafil kanye nsuku zonke futhi uyithathe cishe ngesikhathi esifanayo nsuku zonke ukuthola izinzuzo ze-tadalafil.
Umthamo we-tadalafil wokusetshenziswa okuhlukahlukene uyachazwa;
Ngokungasebenzi kahle kwe-erectile, umthamo we-2.5-5 mg uthathwa nsuku zonke noma i-10 mg lapho uthathwa kanye ngokwesidingo ngasinye.
Nge-benign prostatic hyperplasia, kunconywa umthamo ka-5 mg othathwa nsuku zonke. I-Tadalafil kufanele ithathwe kanye nsuku zonke.
Lapho usebenza ngezimo zombili (ukungasebenzi kahle kwe-erectile ne-prostate ekhulisiwe) isilinganiso se-5 mg ngosuku kufanelekile.
Nge-pulmonary arterial hypertension, umthamo we-tadalafil we-40 mg othathwa nsuku zonke uphakanyiswa.
Njengezinye izidakamizwa, okusebenzela omunye kungahle kungenzi okufanayo komunye. Ezinye izindlela zeTadalafil zikhona. Kodwa-ke, into engcono kakhulu ongayenza ukukhuluma nodokotela wakho ngezindlela ezikhona ze-tadalafil bese ubona ukuthi ikuphi okukufanele kakhulu. Ungase weluleke ukuthi uthathe ezinye izindlela ze-tadalafil uma une-aleji ku-tadalafil noma ngenxa yezinye izizathu.
Kungumsebenzi wakho ukuqaphela ukuthi yini ekusebenzela kahle ngenkathi ukhipha i-tadalafil kungukukhetha noma imiphumela emibi ye-tadalafil isusa izinzuzo ze-tadalafil.


Yini umehluko phakathi kweTadalafil neminye imishanguzo yokungasebenzi kahle kwe-erectile

I-Cialis (Tadalafil)

I-Cialis ngumuthi kadokotela esigabeni semithi ebizwa ngePhosphodiesterase-5 Enzyme Inhibitors. Isetshenziselwa ukwelapha izimpawu zokungasebenzi kahle kwe-erectile. Ingasetshenziswa yodwa noma ihlanganiswe ndawonye nezinye izidakamizwa.

I-Dapoxetine Hydrochloride

I-Dapoxetine hydrochloride ihlukaniswa njenge-serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) ekhetha ukusebenza ngokushesha.
I-Dapoxetine hydrochloride yisidakamizwa esibhalisiwe esisetshenziselwa ukwelapha ukuphuma ngaphambi kwesikhathi. Ukuchama ngaphambi kwesikhathi yisimo esivame kakhulu emadodeni okubandakanya ukungakwazi ukubambezeleka ukuphuma ejaculation. Lesi esinye sezimpawu zokungasebenzi kahle kwamadoda emadodeni.
Yize zombili i-tadalafil ne-dapoxetine hydrochloride zisetshenziselwa ukwelapha izimpawu zokungasebenzi kahle kwe-erectile, i-tadalafil eyodwa iyi-phosphodiesterase inhibitor kanti enye, i-dapoxetine, iyiserotonin reuptake inhibitor ekhethiwe.

IVardenafil Hydrochloride

IVardenafil ngumuthi eqenjini lezidakamizwa elibizwa ngokuthi yi-phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors. Isetshenziselwa ukwelapha ukungasebenzi kahle komuntu wesilisa. Lapho owesilisa evuswa ngocansi, i-vardenafil yandisa ukugeleza kwegazi kuya endondeni okuqinisekisa ukuthi uthola ukwakheka.
IVardenafil ethengiswa ngaphansi kwegama lomkhiqizo i-Levitra ikhetha kakhulu kune-sildenafil ne-tadalafil (Cialis) eya ku-PDE5. Lokhu kumane kusho ukuthi umthamo ophansi we-vardenafil uyadingeka ngemiphumela engemihle engaba khona.
Omunye umehluko ophawulekayo usengxenyeni yempilo lapho i-vardenafil (i-Levitra) ine-half-life of 4-6 hours ngenkathi i-tadalafil (i-Cialis) ine-half-life of 17.5 hours. Lokhu-ke kusho ukuthi iTadalafil (Cialis) isebenza isikhathi eside kune-vardenafil.

Avanafil

I-Avanafil ingumuthi eqenjini lama-phosphodiesterase inhibitors. Ibuye isetshenziselwe ukwelapha ukungasebenzi kahle kwe-erectile ngokwenza ngcono ukugeleza kwegazi esifundeni se-penile.
Yize zombili i-avanafil ne-tadalafil zingama-phosphodiesterase inhibitors, i-avanafil iyona entsha kunazo zonke futhi inempilo emfushane yamahora angama-5 kune-tadalafil enengxenye yempilo yamahora ayi-17.5.
Ekuphetheni, i-tadalafil yinhle kakhulu ngenxa yokuphila kwayo okuyingxenye ende. Umuntu angathatha umuthi esebenzisa imiphumela emibi ethile engaba khona.


Umphumela weTadalafil kanye nezinzuzo

Izinzuzo zeTadalafil

Abaningi abacabanga ukusebenzisa i-tadalafil powder bayithenga ngenxa yezinzuzo zayo eziyinhloko ze-tadalafil;

Ukwelapha ukungasebenzi kahle kwe-erectile

Ukwakhiwa kwe-penile kuyinqubo ebalulekile yomsebenzi wezocansi. Ukungasebenzi kahle kwe-Erectile kwenzeka lapho indoda ingakwazi ukuthola nokugcina ukwakhiwa. Lokhu kubangela izingqinamba eziningi ezinjengosizi, ukuzenyeza, nezinkinga zobudlelwano.
Ukwakhiwa kutholakala lapho kunokugeleza kwegazi okwanele endondeni. I-Tadalafil isiza ekunciphiseni izimpawu zokungasebenzi kahle kwe-erectile ngokwandisa ukugeleza kwegazi ukuya endondeni.

Ukwelapha izimpawu ze-benign prostatic hyperplasia

I-Benign prostatic hyperplasia nayo ibizwa nangokuthi i-prostate gland ekhulisiwe. Lesi yisimo esenzeka ngokwemvelo ngokukhula. Lapho indlala ye-prostate ikhuliswa, iyakhama i-urethra. Ezinye zezimpawu ezihambisana ne-prostate enwetshiwe yilezi; ukuchama okuphuthumayo futhi kaningi, kunzima ukuqala ukuchama, ukuchama okubuhlungu phakathi kwabanye.
I-Tadalafil izuzisa amadoda aphethwe yi-benign prostatic hyperplasia ngokususa lezi zimpawu. I-Tadalafil powder isiza ukukhulula indlala yesinye kanye nesinye ngaleyo ndlela kunciphise izimpawu ezihambisana nesinye esicindezelwe kanye ne-urethra.

Ingaphatha kokubili ukungasebenzi kahle kwe-erectile ne-benign prostatic hyperplasia

I-Tadalafil ingasiza futhi amadoda ahlupheka ukungasebenzi kahle kwe-erectile kanye ne-prostate gland eyandisiwe ngasikhathi sinye.
Uma usebenzisa i-tadalafil esilinganisweni esifanele futhi njengoba kunconyiwe uvuna izinzuzo ezishiwo. Njengoba ngenza ukugeleza kwegazi esifundeni se-penile nakwezinye izindawo, kuyindlela enempilo yokubhekana nalezi zimo.

Ingasetshenziswa futhi ekwelapheni izimpawu zomfutho wegazi ophezulu

I-pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) ngokuyisisekelo isho ukuthi kukhona umfutho wegazi ophezulu emithanjeni ethatha igazi lisuke enhliziyweni liye emaphashini. Ihluke nokho umfutho wegazi ojwayelekile.
I-PAH yenzeka lapho imithambo ehambisa igazi emaphashini iba mincane noma ivinjiwe okuholela enhliziyweni ukuthi iphoqwe ukupompa igazi ngezinga eliphezulu. Lokhu kushaya kwenhliziyo okusheshayo nokuphoqelekile kuholela ekucindezelekeni okukhulu emithanjeni yegazi.
I-Tadalafil powder iyazibuza ngokuphumuza imithambo yegazi. Lokhu kuphumula kuvumela ukugeleza kwegazi okushelelayo yingakho kukhuphula izinga lokugeleza. Lokhu kusiza inhliziyo ukuthi impompe ukushelela kwegazi ngaleyo ndlela ikhulule ingcindezi ebinganqwabelana

Kuthuthukisa ikhono lakho lokuzivocavoca umzimba

Ngesikhathi sokuzivocavoca ukugeleza kwegazi kubalulekile ukuvumela umuntu ukuba athole i-oxygen eyanele kanye nokukhiqiza amandla anele adingekayo.
I-Tadalafil ingakhuphula ukusebenza kokuzivocavoca kwakho kokubili ukuphumuza imithambo yegazi nokwandisa ukuhamba kwegazi.

Imiphumela emibi yeTadalafil

Imiphumela emibi kakhulu ye-tadalafil ifaka phakathi;

  • Amakhanda,
  • Isicanucanu,
  • ukuqhuma (ukufudumala, ubomvu, noma umuzwa we-tingly),
  • ukucasuka kwesisu,
  • impumu egxilile noma egijimayo, futhi
  • ubuhlungu bemisipha, ubuhlungu beqolo, nobuhlungu ezingalweni noma emilenzeni.

I-Tadalafil nayo ingaholela emiphumeleni emibi kakhulu. Uyalulekwa ukuthi ufune usizo lwezokwelapha uma uhlangabezana nanoma yimiphi imiphumela emibi ye-tadalafil elandelayo;

  • ezinye izimpawu zokuhlaselwa yinhliziyo ezibandakanya ubuhlungu besifuba, ubuhlungu obusabalala emhlathini noma ehlombe, isicanucanu nokujuluka.
  • izinguquko zombono kufaka phakathi ukungaboni kahle noma ukulahleka kombono kungazelelwe.
  • ukuqhuma (ukufudumala, ubomvu, noma umuzwa we-tingly),
  • Ukuzwa ukukhubazeka ku
  • kukhala ezindlebeni zakho nokulahleka kokuzwa
  • Ukwakhiwa okubuhlungu noma okuhlala isikhathi eside kunamahora ama-4 ngoba lokhu kungalimaza isitho sakho sangasese.
  • Ukuvota
  • Ukushaya kwenhliziyo okungavamile
  • Ukuquleka, isiyezi kanye,
  • Ukukhathala okungavamile.

Ukusebenzisana Kwezidakamizwa kweTadalafil

Ukuxhumana okuningana kwe-tadalafil nezinye izidakamizwa kuye kwabikwa. Ukusebenzisana kwezidakamizwa kuvame ukuguqula ukusebenza kwemithi futhi kungavimbela izidakamizwa ukuthi zisebenze kahle.
Ngakho-ke welulekwa kakhulu ukuthi uxoxe ngemithi yakho ngaphambi kokusebenzisa i-tadalafil. Okunye ukuxhumana kwe-tadalafil kungaba mnene nokunye okubi.
Ngezansi ukuxhumana kwe-tadalafil;

I-Nitrates

Babizwa nangokuthi yimithi ye-Anguina. Lapho ama-nitrate ehlanganiswa ne-tadalafil, kungaholela ekucindezelweni kwegazi kwehlele emazingeni aphansi kakhulu. Izinga eliphansi lomfutho wegazi lihlotshaniswa nezimpawu ezifana nesiyezi noma nokuquleka.
Eminye yale mithi ye-pain ihlanganisa; i-butyl nitrite, i-amyl nitrite, i-isosorbide dinitrate, i-nitroglycerin, ne-isosorbide mononitrate.

Alpha-blockers

Lezi yimithi esetshenziselwa ukulungisa umfutho wegazi ophakeme. Zisetshenziswa nasekwelapheni indlala yesinye. Kokubili i-tadalafil ne-alpha-blockers ngama-vasodilator anemiphumela yokwehlisa umfutho wegazi. Uma kusetshenziswe ndawonye, ​​kungaholela ekwehleni okukhulu / okuphawulekayo komfutho wegazi. Lokhu kudala ukuthi umuntu abe nesiyezi futhi angaquleka futhi.
Eminye yemithi ye-alpha-blockers ifaka; terazosin, tamsulosin, alfuzosin, ne-prazosin.

Eminye imishanguzo ye-HIV

Le mithi iyi-protease inhibitors ngakho-ke ingakhuphula izinga le-tadalafil egazini. Lokhu kwanda kubangela umfutho wegazi ophansi. Kungadala futhi ukuthambekela emadodeni okusho ukuthi bathola ukwakhiwa okunwetshiwe okuvame ukuba buhlungu.
Eminye yale mithi i-ritonavir ne-lopinavir.

Nemithi Elwa Namagciwane

Ukusebenzisana kweTadalafil nama-antibiotic kubikiwe. Uma ihlanganiswa ne-tadalafil, ama-antibiotic angakhuphula izinga le-tadalafil egazini eliholela ekwehliseni umfutho wegazi. Okwakhe kungaholela ekubeni nesiyezi, ukuquleka, ngisho nezinkinga ezithile zombono. Kungadala nokuqokwa emadodeni.
Eminye yale mithi i-erythromycin, i-telithromycin, ne-clarithromycin.
Kodwa-ke, ama-antibiotics athile angehlisa amazinga we-tadalafil egazini. Lokhu kuxhumana kwe-tadalafil kwenza kungasebenzi kahle. Le mithi ifaka phakathi; phumlani.

Izidakamizwa ezibulalayo

Eminye imishanguzo yomlomo yokulwa nokubola okubandakanya i-ketoconazole ne-itraconazole ihlangana ne-tadalafil.
Le mithi ingakhuphula izinga le-tadalafil okuholela ekutheni ube nesiyezi nokuquleka kungenzeka futhi.

Ezinye izidakamizwa ze-pulmonary hypertension

I-Tadalafil neminye imishanguzo yomfutho wegazi ophezulu yaziwa ngokuba nemiphumela yokwehlisa umfutho wegazi. Uma kusetshenziswe ndawonye kungaholela emazingeni aphansi omfutho wegazi. Lokhu kubangela izimpawu ezihambisana nomfutho wegazi ophansi ezifana nesiyezi nokuquleka.
Izidakamizwa zihlanganisa i-riociguat.

Ama-antacid

Le mithi isetshenziselwa ukukhulula i-acid esiswini. Uma isetshenziswa ngokuhlangana ne-tadalafil, ingavimbela ukumuncwa kwe-tadalafil emzimbeni. Kubandakanya i-magnesium hydroxide noma i-aluminium hydroxide.

Imithi yesifo sokuwa

Lezi zibizwa nangokuthi yimithi yokulwa nokuquleka. Uma uthatha izidakamizwa zokulwa nokubanjwa kanye ne-tadalafil, zinganciphisa ukumuncwa kwe-tadalafil. Lokhu kusho ukuthi i-tadalafil ngeke ikwazi ukusebenza kahle. Le mithi yokuwa ihlanganisa i-phenytoin, i-phenobarbital, ne-carbamazepine.


Ungayithenga kuphi iTadalafil?

Ungenza iTadalafil ithenge ezitolo eziku-inthanethi. Impuphu iyatholakala ngobuningi kubacwaningi nabahlaziyi. Qinisekisa ukuhlola abahlinzeki abavunyelwe i-tadalafil powder Uma ucabanga ukuthatha i-tadalafil ithenge kubathengisi abathembekile.
Xhumana nodokotela wakho ngaphambi kokuthatha i-tadalafil ngenxa yemiphumela emibi ye-tadalafil kanye nokuxhumana kwe-tadalafil nezinye izidakamizwa.
Uma ufuna iTadalafil noma abaphakathi kwayo, kufanele ubheke ne-CMOAPI ukuthola ukutholakala okuvumelekile kwemikhiqizo emsulwa. Izinhlanganisela zethu zithole isiqinisekiso sekhwalithi.


Okubhekwayo
  1. AmaPenedones A, Alves C, Batel Marques F (2020). "Ubungozi be-nonarteritic ischemic optic neuropathy nge-phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors: ukubuyekezwa okuhlelekile nokuhlaziywa kwemeta". Acta Ophthalmol. 98 (1): 22-31. i-doi: 10.1111 / aos.14253. I-PMID 31559705.
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